Channel: Xen-Arts.net
Mark channel Not-Safe-For-Work? cancel confirm NSFW Votes: (0 votes)
Are you the publisher? Claim or contact us about this channel.
  • 1
  • Page 2
  • 3

RIP | Oöphoi | Gianluigi Gasparetti (1958–2013)

I've just heard the devastating news, that one of my all time favorite artists - Gianluigi Gasparetti - aka - Oöphoi - has passed away after a long period of illness.

For visitors unfamiliar with the music of  Oöphoi, he was a prolific creator of many exquisitely beautiful albums and was among the towering figures in the Italian ambient/soundscape scene.

So many perfectly beautiful compositions...

He will be sorely missed for his rare sonic vision and vast contribution to the audio arts. From a personal perspective, what makes his catalog such a treasure for the future, is its ability to endure repeated listenings down through the years, and every time I return to his albums, they remain fresh to my ears and reveal ever greater depths of detail on each new hearing. As anyone can that composes music can relate to, it is extremely difficult to attain this kind of quality, but it is a thread consistently woven throughout the fabric of his vast discography.

Speechless right now and will be listening shortly to one of my favorite Oöphoi albums: Hymns To A Silent Sky (2005).

 Oöphoi - Fragile Beauty

This entire album is wonderful and I've always loved the long-form composition The Unbearable Sadness Of Memories...

Oöphoi - The Unbearable Sadness Of Memories (Hymns To A Silent Sky)

I have personally long regarded this as a composition of perfected beauty among many, many others by Oöphoi.

More Oöphoi on YouTube

Just intonation composer, Robert Rich, has a nice dedication on his site:
For Gianluigi Gasparetti, “Oöphoi”

Hypnos label owner, Mike Griffin has a tribute here:
Oöphoi (Gianluigi Gasparetti) Has Passed Away

An Oöphoi Wikipedia article and discography:

Update: 2013-04-19

For what it may be worth, in celebration of the life and creative work of this wonderful artist, this past week I've returned to my private Oöphoi archive with new ears, and renewed interest, to do more Deep Listenings of the following timeless and amazingly beautiful records:

Oöphoi - Static Soundscapes - Three Lights at the End of the World (Hic Sunt Leones, 1996)
Oöphoi - The Spirals of Time (Limited Deluxe Edition - 1998)
Oöphoi - Mare Vaporum (2000)
Oöphoi - Athlit (2002)
Oöphoi - Bardo (2002)
Oöphoi - Mare Imbrium (2003)
Oöphoi - Mare Tranquilitatis (2004)
Oöphoi - The Dreaming Of Shells (2004)
Oöphoi & Tau Ceti - Archaic Oceans (2004)
Oöphoi - Hymns to a Silent Sky (2005)
Oöphoi - Awakening The Nagas (Penumbra, 2005)
Oöphoi - The Rustling Of Leaves (2005)
Oöphoi - Time Fragments Vols. 1-6 (2001-2005)
Oöphoi & Tau Ceti - Celestial Geometries (The Complete Recordings - 2006)
Oöphoi - Dreams, Parts 1-3 (2006)
Oöphoi - Arpe Di Sabbia (2007)
Oöphoi & Faryus - Forgotten Rituals (2007)

These I would have to rank as among my top favorite Oöphoi records, although there are many more available to consider. Highly recommended if you have a way to obtain them.

Album Release | Iquaxaphaezi: Passage (2003)


This is a piece written during May 2003 (re-mastered on 4/14/2013) and is dedicated to the memory of Gianluigi Gasparetti (1958–2013), who tragically passed away this week; far too early in his quite young creative life. He was also widely known around the world as the Italian Ambient/Soundcape artist Oöphoi.

Oöphoi was among my favorite artists from any genre or style and one who has created a vast discography of some of the most beautiful and organic minimalist soundscape and drone music of anyone working in this field of artistic endeavor. Although it was never explicitly stated that he systematically worked with alternative intonation systems, even a cursory listen to his output will reveal that the music is often working with textures, drones and melodic materials that are far from the pitch-grid of the familiar Western 12-tone-equal-temperament. It is clear by inference and association that he was aware of just intonation, from both his interaction with Robert Rich (just intonation composer and co-inventor of the MIDI Tuning Standard) and that he published a widely distributed Ambient music journal called Deep Listenings, from a phrase coined by American New Music and just intonation composer Pauline Oliveros.

Although this amazing artist was taken from us far to early in his creative life, we are fortunate that he leaves us with a vast catalog of records to explore in the future; a worthy pursuit for anyone curious about one of the seminal figures in the field of drone-based minimalism of the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

This composition; a small gesture of remembrance and thanks to an artist who has been an occasional inspiration to my own work since I first learned of his amazing artistry in the early 2000s, is an excerpt from the longer version of the piece that is, in its entirety, 23:26 long, and is created using a heptatonic 23 limit just intonation microtuning.

Download the full length composition using the below links:

[92 MB]

[89 MB]

MP3 (320 kps stereo)
[54 MB]

Many kind thanks for taking the time to listen,


Jeffrey Plaide | Two New Videos Featuring Xen-Arts Xenharmonic FMTS

Visitors may recall a past post about about video artist/composer Jeffrey Plaide, who has been featured twice on one of my personal favorite new-media sites, Triangulation Blog.

Access these articles here:

Jeffrey Plaide |  07 February 2012
Jeffrey Plaide |  26 November 2012

As previously mentioned, the artist occasionally uses the Xen-Arts, Xenharmonic FMTS VSTi in his work, as is the case with the below two recent video works:

The Fear of Webs and Other Faceless Anomalies

Haunted Moon Ancient Humana

Very impressive video art. Check it out!

[For those interested in such matters, at some point, hopefully before this year is out, an update to Xen-FMTS, will become available. When completed and tested, this new iteration to version 2 will take the instrument to completely new levels of possibility for microtonal and xenharmonic sound-design and spectral-microtuning. In the meanwhile, I'm actively focused on both solo and collaborative recording projects which will also be available in upcoming months. Stay microtuned to Xen-Arts for all of these potentially exciting developments.]

Ella Fitzgerald - Midnight Sun (1957)

Google reminds us that today is Ella Fitzgerald's 96th birthday, and what better occasion to listen to perhaps the most memorably beautiful version of the below standard...

Ella Fitzgerald - Midnight Sun (1957)

I've long loved this tune for it's lovely harmonies and melodic chromaticism.

In today's robotic vocal Autotuned world, one can only stand in awe of the incredible artistry of masters like Ella, whose exquisite and rare virtuoso talent was embodied in stepping-up-to-the-mic as they say. Such as...


Ella Fitzgerarld - Midnight Sun - Live Cannes Festival 1958

I recall reading somewhere in the past that she also had the gift of perfect pitch and instrumentalists could actually tune to her voice.

I love Ella!

XenFont VSTi | Stats

XenFont Stats Report
 SF2 SoundFonts alive and well after xenharmonic reanimation

Of potential interest to visitors and users of Xen-Arts VSTi...

Since its public release on February 3, 2013 - in just a mere three month period - there have been 6,818 downloads of the XenFont VSTi, making it, by far, the most popular of all the Xen-Arts instruments.

Perhaps the most surprising part of seeing this level of enthusiasm, is a previously held preconception, that the SF2 SoundFont format was basically obsolete, and for this reason, there would likely be very little interest in a fully microtonal SF2 VSTi, however, this has proven to be entirely incorrect.

As well as the uniformly positive feedback from computer musicians and composers around the world, it has also been an honor to have the instrument featured on a variety of great music technology websites such as:

Free XenFont Microtonal Hybrid Synth VSTi For Windows

Free music software round-up: Week 121 Freeware synths and effects

Xen-Arts releases XenFont: Xenharmonic SoundFont VSTi

KVR Audio
Xen-Arts releases XenFont: Microtonal SoundFont & Subtractive Synthesis VSTi for Windows

Sonic State
Hybrid Soundfont And Subtractive SynthXen-Arts introduces the fully-microtonlal XenFont VSTi for Windows

Bedroom Producers Blog
XenFont – Free Microtonal SF2 Player And Synthesizer By Xen-Arts

It's been thrilling to see this truly astonishing level of interest, in this, and the other Xen-Arts VSTi, and as always, if you create xenharmonic and microtonal music with these instruments, get in touch to let us know about it, as the ultimate goal of this effort is to inspire computer musicians and composers to explore the vast expressive possibilities of composing and performing with alternative intonation systems.

To all of the friendly people who have posted comments, shared music and written privately, it's been great to hear from you and learn about your interest in xenharmonic and microtonal music.

Cypher (2002) | Film Music with Microtones | Michael Andrews

EP Release | Jacky Ligon - Between Moments (2013)

Jacky Ligon - Between Moments (2013)
1. In Low Light (14:16)
2. A Deeper Blue (8:16)

[109 MB]

[105 MB]

[52 MB]

A Postcard for June | 23-ED2 Etude

A Postcard for June

A miniature study in 23 tone equal temperament.

Anyone who has been following the evolution of xenharmonic and microtonal music over the past many decades, will recognize that not a lot of music has been written in the exotic and compositionally challenging 23-ED2, with some noteworthy exceptions, such as track 5, 23 Notes - Allegro Moderato, from Easley Blackwood's infamous - 12 Microtonal Etudes for Electronic Music Media.

But where the vistas of possibility opened for me personally about 23 equal, was over a decade ago now, when I was one of the lucky recipients of a massive care-package of fantastic xenharmonic and microtonal music CDs from the west coast of the United States. Contained in this treasure box of audio delights, were numerous and stylistically varied pieces by xenharmonic composer and author, Brian McLaren. I recall many times during the course of deep listening and absorbing the new music in this archive, being inspired by the sound of the intonation in certain pieces, and when referencing the liner notes, would discover that they were actually in 23 equal.

So while we have that great historical piece from Blackwood's, 12 Microtonal Etudes, McLaren has actually written numerous noteworthy compositions in this intonation system, and is probably the first composer I've been aware of to master it.

[ED2, in this case, denotes an equal division of the second harmonic into 23 equal parts. EDn is a term that has been used in private alternative intonation communications between musicians, composers and developers to indicate the equal division of precise harmonic series intervals, as opposed to perceptual octave, tritaves and so on, that can vary wildly around the target, such as when played or sang by vocalists, string and wind instrument performers. Of course, with computer music and virtual instruments, we are often dealing with high precision rendering of the intonation, thus the need to distinguish between the mathematically precise and the perceptual.]

Our tour of the 23 territories continues through Italy. Three deep xenematic works from composer Carlo Serafini:

Desert Winds
23 Laments

Carlo Serafini | Doomsday23

Be sure to listen to these tracks on a system with some decent bass range frequency representation.

Vi Hart | Twelve Tones

Along with Dubbhism, Salon and many others, I wanted to echo my appreciation of one of Vi Hart's latest videos Twelve Tones.

Not only is this one of the most brilliant, witty and creative things in recent memory, her entire channel is simply one of the best on YouTube.

Prepare to be completely amazed starting at around 21:24 by the vocal harmonizations, which are quite frankly breathtakingly beautiful.

Also worth checking out are her great videos on phyllotaxis:

And of course, her amazing...

For what it may be worth, she would have to rank among the top of my list of favorite artists that I would like to hear explore alternative intonations - aka - xenharmonics and microtonality.

K. P. H. Notoprojo | Javanese Rebab and Gamelan Master

Anyone interesting in the field of alternative intonation will probably be aware of the Gamelan music of Bali and Java, and among the most important figures to learn about is K. P. H. Notoprojo - aka - K.R.T. Wasitodiningrat.

Pak Cokro Centennial Celebration (2004), part 1

Other installments of this great documentary:
Pak Cokro Centennial Celebration (2004), part 2
Pak Cokro Centennial Celebration (2004), part 3

Three compositions from the wonderful album...

The music of K.R.T. Wasitodiningrat, performed by Gamelan Sekar Tunjung, CMP Records, 1994

Lancaran Orde Baru, pelog barang

Gendhing Corobalen - Ktw Basanta, pelog nem

Lancaran Penghijauan, slendro manyura

Microtonal software developer, composer and expert on Gamelan music (from years of actual ensemble practice and performance), X. J. Scott, informs us that the plucked stringed instrument weaving magical sounding ostinatos on this incredible recording is the....

As there is much that western musicians and composers may learn from the timeless music of Javanese Gamelan, these priceless videos and recordings are among the most amazing performance demonstrations of what is possible with alternative intonation systems. It is easy to hear that the music glows with a deep intonational character that is entirely off the map of our seemingly omnipresent 12-tone equal temperament.

A Brief History of Delay


A topic of immense personal interest, and although we may take it for granted in these contemporary times of great DSP abundance, it was a huge epiphany of possibility when host synchronized delays started to appear for computer music composition - and I dare say - which practically has spawned and inspired the creation of as much music, and as many genres, as the most popular intonation systems in history.

LinPlug Spectral | Coming Autumn 2013

Our friends at LinPlug have been working on a new virtual instrument called Spectral, which will be available in the fall of this year.

Having been on their beta group since microtuning features were added to their CronoX 3, I can affirm that Spectral is one of the most amazing sounding, fully microtunable instruments I've worked with in like - well - ever.

Seriously, this instrument is capable of making an incredibly vast range of exquisite timbres that can be used for explorations into the deep sound realms of alternative intonation, which display many resonant properties one would typically associate with acoustic instruments.

Like the rest of LinPlug's fully-microtonal virtual instrument line, Spectral will also use the TUN format which was invented by developer Mark Henning, and first introduced in his AnaMark VSTi synthesizer back in 2003.

As far as virtual instruments designed for alternative intonation goes, the LinPlug Spectral will no doubt be the big event of 2013. Excitement abounds...

Korean Kayagum Sanjo | Scattered Melodies

Often little explanation is needed when one is presented with some of the most beautiful music ever recorded; the only requirement being the ability to listen deeply and honestly...

Ham Tong Jung wol Kayagum Sanjo

Kim Byong-ho - Kayagum Sanjo Improvisation

Jung Nam Hee Chajinmori

Ancient Korean Traditional Music - Hwang Byeonggi - Kayagum Sanjo Variation (Filmed in 1966)

Yu Tai-bong - Kayagum Sanjo


Scattered Melodies: Korean Kayagum Sanjo LP SF077
Scattered Melodies (SF077) is a compilation of Korean Kayagum Sanjo Music. Sanjo, meaning "scattered melodies," is a form of stylized string improvisation developed in the 1890s originally for the Korean kayagum, a smaller distant cousin of the Japanese koto. Stark and haunting, falling in the gaps between folk and classical music, kayagum sanjo employs a gradually increasing tempo, focused improvisation (the “scattering of melodies”), elastic rhythms, and intense snaps and vibrato that seem to power through the hazy abstractions of the 78rpm recording technology (these are old, exceedingly rare records that have survived nearly insurmountable odds: invasion, occupation, war, division.) Presented here are a few of the masters of sanjo as it originally emerged in the early part of the 20th century on 78rpm recordings from 1925 to the early 1950s. This limited edition LP comes enclosed in a beautiful tip-on jacket with two-sided insert featuring extended liner notes by compiler Robert Millis.

Jon Hassell | 2013 Tour • Lisboa

Chas Smith • Sculptural Percussion | Man Of Steel Soundtrack with Hans Zimmer


Featuring the most excellent sounds of rods and plates microtuned to a 14 tone scale.

Breathtakingly amazing timbres!

Clocks and Clouds • Kraig Grady and Terumi Narushima | In A Pentagonal Room (2013)

It's very exciting to see that our friends from Anaphoria have released a new record this week...

Performed by Clocks and Clouds
Kraig Grady Meta-Slendro vibraphone
Terumi Narushima Meta-Slendro organ

Release Notes:
"IN A PENTAGONAL ROOM is the first CD of microtonal performance duo CLOCKS AND CLOUDS. The title refers to the unique five-sided reverberation chamber in which the recordings are made. The shape and surface of the room produce sounds and decays that last as long as 12 seconds enhancing the unique sounds of the duo's specially tuned instruments. The interaction of harmonics produced by the Meta-Slendro vibraphone and organ is captured via a special five microphone setup, resulting in what will probably be considered the definitive recording of these instruments. The album is totally acoustic and free of overdubs or enhancement. Even equalization is by-passed in order to retain the high quality of the original sounds."

As even a cursory examination around the web will reveal, the interest in, and exploration of the use of musical instrument alternative intonation systems - aka - xenharmonics and microtonality - is of late, growing at a historically unprecedented an seemingly almost exponential rate. 

As we know, or may otherwise well intuit, what it takes to bring this creative music full circle, from the background theoretical research to the level of a complete musical release that can be shared with the listening world, is a totally non-trivial pursuit, often requiring the synthesis of a unique set of skills that may encompass instrument building, intonation pitch scale design, mastery of specialized compositional and performance techniques, recording and audio engineering knowledge, and perhaps most importantly, a refined type of aesthetic deep-vision and intimate experience with these sounds - often acquired from many hard-earned years of active practice - for how to put it all together into a format and presentation that will potentially endure repeated listenings down through the years. 

And these things - as well as many others - far too multifaceted to summarize in few words - are what makes these kinds of record releases such a special - and specialized - kind of artistic event in a musical world dominated by the hegemony of the Western 12-tone-equal-temperament, which in itself, is indeed an intonation system of self evident great beauty and musical utility, yet in reality is but one small member of a vast continuum of intonational possibility.

In my own personal view of such matters, Kraig Grady's work consistently stands among the most sonically and compositionally alluring - and exquisitely beautiful - manifestations of this synthesis and vision, and his records are among the most treasured of all in my collection. 

An excerpt from the record is available to stream on the Anaphoria Music ordering page:

Just ordered the CD today, so expect more comments once I've received the record and have had time to listen deeply.

Danny Elfman | Microtonal Film Music Composer

Here's an interesting new article on The Guardian:

Although most people know him from his film and TV work, I recall getting to see his high energy rock big band, Oingo Boingo, in concert some decades ago, which was a lot of fun.

Among my top favorite of his films scores is...

A Simple Plan (1998) - IMDb

And as one can easily hear, the gorgeous opening theme of this film prominently features microtones. The Wikipedia article, List of quarter tone pieces, states:

"Soundtrack score for A Simple Plan features "very specific quarter tone detunings coming off the Emulator"."

As many who are interested in the lore of microtonal music will be aware, Elfman once actually lived in a communal house with microtonal theorist and instrument designer Erv Wilson, who has been an inspiration and teacher to some of the most interesting composers actively working in the field of alternative intonation (aka xenharmonics and microtonality).

BBC News | How did ancient Greek music sound?

Here's an intriguing new article just published on the BBC:

Looks like some interesting ongoing research that includes analysis of speech-rhythms and they even briefly discuss Ptolemy:

Tuning up

"But one shouldn't assume that the Greeks' idea of tuning was identical to ours. Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD provides precise mathematical ratios for numerous different scale-tunings, including one that he says sounds "foreign and homespun".

Timeless: Joan Plowright and John Gielgud preparing a 1959 radio version of a Sophocles play

Dr David Creese of the University of Newcastle has constructed an eight-string "canon" (a zither-like instrument) with movable bridges.

When he plays two versions of the Seikilos tune using Ptolemy's tunings, the second immediately strikes us as exotic, more like Middle Eastern than Western music.

The earliest musical document that survives preserves a few bars of sung music from a play, Orestes by the fifth-century BC tragedian Euripides. It may even be music Euripides himself wrote.

Music of this period used subtle intervals such as quarter-tones. We also find that the melody doesn't conform to the word pitches at all."

As we know though, lots of other deep research into these questions has been done in the past by John Chalmers, author of Divisions of the Tetrachord, Erv Wilson, Harry Partch, and in more recent times, the great work of Cris Forster of the The Chrysalis Foundation, in his wonderful, Musical Mathematics, perhaps one of the most important works on musical instrument intonation and its history published during the 21st century. 

One can only hope that this new research discussed in the article will result in instrument reconsructions and microtuning, performance and recorded documentation, so that we can all appreciate these ancient sounds in a new light. 

The Terpstra Keyboard

Just noticed today that Synthtopia has a feature about the Terpstra Keyboard:

Which prompted me to visit their Indiegogo project page here:

The most interesting models to me are:

Get the full 5 "octaves" version of the Terpstra Keyboard.

Get the full 5 "octaves" version of the Terpstra Keyboard,
that can be upgraded with the color changing keycaps.

Uncovering the other Terpstra Keyboard Prototype

"Video showing more of the keyboard's expressive possibilities shot by Garnet Willis at Noisetree Studios in Toronto. This is the first video showing the Terpstra in a professional production studio, where Garnet uses it for composition and performance for film, TV, and dance. You'll notice that velocity sensitivity is clear in the composition."

Another performance demonstration:

Discovering the Terpstra Keyboard prototype

Seems to play very fluidly in 19 and 31 equal, although with some accompanying audible level of key clicking noise with this particular prototype version.

Update 1:
The below image from the Cortex Design site shows the back panel of the instrument, which reveals that it has 1/4" jacks for an expression controller and a pedal switch, as well as MIDI I/O.

For what it may be worth, I use the Pianoteq plugin, which works with both a continuous controller sustain pedal, as well as a switch style sustain pedal as featured on the Terpstra Keyboard; the former being preferable for really finessing the pedaling technique, although the latter is also serviceable and perhaps more common.

Update 2:

What's up with those clacky keys?

"I have fielded a few questions from people concerned about the noise of the keys in the videos posted online. Rest assured we will address the issues, but in the interest of disclosure and putting potential backer's minds at ease, here is a brief of what causes the noise and what we plan to do about it.

1) When releasing a keystroke by gliding your finger off its edge, the key releases quickly and the colored keycap rattles. The keycaps shown in the video are powder-coated steel caps, held in place with weak ceramic magnets. The weakness was intentional, as I did not want to interfere with the stronger neodymium magnets directly below them that interact with the Hall effect sensors that sense key position.
In the new design, we plan to retain the keycaps entirely differently, using a plastic snap fastener molded into the keycap itself. That should take care of that (and the keycap that falls out of its place in the video, as one observant musician noted).

2) The keyboard in the video needs recalibration of the keys. Over time, some sensor drift is anticipated, and as such the keyboards were programmed with a calibration procedure to sense the top and bottom of their full range of travel. Mike reported having to push the individual keys fairly deep into their keystroke to send a note-on event. As a result, he was playing the keyboard hard and bottoming out the keys. Recalibrating should fix this issue and the keyboard becomes more responsive. I expect in the next rev of keyboard firmware, we will be able to implement an auto-calibration so this step can be skipped."

But I wonder if visitors would agree - or not - that it is unfortunate that this controller seems primarily focused on piano-and-organ-style gesture, and doesn't include a pitch-wheel, mod-wheel or joy-stick controller? 

As one can see, some models bundle in the Einklang virtual instrument. I wonder how other musicians would add in real-time expressive musical gestures - such as via a pitch-wheel, mod-wheel / joy-stick controller - of the type found almost universally on keyboard controllers these days. Suppose they could be added in and merged as external MIDI devices, but this could potentially add an extra layer of hassle for musicians and composers used to having them available built right into most keyboards.

This is the only little thing that would make me reluctant to buy one, since using a pitch or mod-wheel as an expressive aspect of keyboard performance is something that I would generally consider an essential feature. And for what it may be worth, I prefer wheels to joy-sticks.

The price for either of the above two is comparable to what I gave for my AXiS-64 from C-Thru Music, however, the AXiS-64 does actually include two assignable controller wheels: one spring-centered wheel for pitch-bend, and the other a mod-wheel.

The AXiS-64 from C-Thru Music is a 192 key hexagonal array generalized 
keyboard featuring pitch-bend and mod-wheels, and two rotary controls.

There's little doubt though that the Terpstra will have far superior key action and velocity response than the AXiS, although the original inventor, Peter Davies of The Shape of Music, seems to have made significant key-action improvements to this type of hexagonal array generalized keyboard with his Opal model, which also happens to feature MIDI assignable wheels.

Both the Opal Chameleon and Opal Gecko have a 192 key hexagonal array generalized
keyboard, feature pitch-bend and mod-wheels, and (what appears to be) five rotary controls.

Symphonie Cinétique - The Poetry of Motion



"This film presents the wonderful journey that media artist Joachim Sauter (ART+COM) and composer Ólafur Arnalds ventured on together at MADE, that culminated with the creation and performance of this interdisciplinary Gesamtkunstwerk.

The dialogue and exchange between these two craftsmen, each coming from a distinctly different discipline, resulted in a majestic clash of light, motion and sound.

Please dive in, let go and enjoy this wonderful moment - Joachim's graceful kinetic pieces breathing and moving in harmony with the touching music composed by Olafur.

Film by: Matthias Maercks"

Gorgeous work that takes the pioneering sculptural design concepts of Alexander Calder to a new level with the fusion of mechanical animation, reflected light projection and pulse based minimalist music. The end result is exquisite.
  • 1
  • Page 2
  • 3